Our findings show a strong association between age, female sex, and an APOE4 genotype, with decreased cortical DHA and a number of SPMs, which together may contribute to the development of cognitive decline and AD pathology.
Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators or "SPM's" are essential to the resolution of inflammation and may not be present in as high concentrations in the brains of APOE4 females due to the lower concentration of the precursor DHA. Studies suggest SPM levels can be raised in human by dietary measures.
Given the potent biological actions of SPM in organ protection and promoting bacterial clearance, nutritional therapies enriched in omega-3 fatty acids hold promise as a potential co-therapy approach when coupled with functional lipid mediator profiling.
Plasma concentrations of biologically active oxylipins derived from n-3 PUFAs, including epoxy-PUFAs and SPM-precursors, increase linearly with elevated intake of EPA and DHA. Interindividual differences in resulting plasma concentrations are low
Fish oil increases SPMs in plasma of patients with PAD. Further studies are required to determine whether these early changes translate to clinical improvements in patients with PAD.