Thanks Susan. I found that interesting too.
It would appear difficult to get 1000 mg of choline a day through diet if one has, shall we say, subclinical choline deficiency. One serving each of all the items in the food chart yields only just over 1500 mg of choline a day. The upper limit for adults is 3500, so it seems the risk of getting too much would only be high if loads of the top four sources were eaten. When I guage my dietary choline inputs, with my genetics I'm only more encouraged to supplement, but I wonder if the TMG issue is still a problem is one starts with a deficiency. Will have to look into that. Don't know much about it.WebMD
An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily. Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day; pregnant women, 450 mg per day. For children 1-3 years the AI is 200 mg per day; 4-8 years, 250 mg per day; 9-13 years, 375 mg per day; for infants less than 6 months, 125 mg per day; infants 7-12 months, 150 mg per day. [Emphasis added]
When setting these AI levels, they appear to have completely overlooked the risk to post-menopausal women -- especially maybe those not on HRT along with those having mutations on the choline SNPs, and holy smokes if you're both. Does this oversight in dietary practice not look like it could be a contributor to the higher incidence of AD in women?
This is also interesting from waaaaaay back in 2006:Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans
Whereas deficiency of the essential nutrient choline is associated with DNA damage and apoptosis in cell and rodent models, it has not been shown in humans.
The objective was to ascertain whether lymphocytes from choline-deficient humans had greater DNA damage and apoptosis than did those from choline-sufficient humans.
Fifty-one men and women aged 18–70 y were fed a diet containing the recommended adequate intake of choline (control) for 10 d. They then were fed a choline-deficient diet for up to 42 d before repletion with 138–550 mg choline/d. Blood was collected at the end of each phase, and peripheral lymphocytes were isolated. DNA damage and apoptosis were then assessed by activation of caspase-3, terminal deoxynucleotide transferase–mediated dUTP nick end-labeling, and single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assays.
All subjects fed the choline-deficient diet had lymphocyte DNA damage, as assessed by COMET assay, twice that found when they were fed the control diet. The subjects who developed organ dysfunction (liver or muscle) when fed the choline-deficient diet had significantly more apoptotic lymphocytes, as assessed by the activated caspase-3 assay, than when fed the control diet.
A choline-deficient diet increased DNA damage in humans. Subjects in whom these diets induced liver or muscle dys-function also had higher rates of apoptosis in their peripheral lymphocytes than did subjects who did not develop organ dysfunction. Assessment of DNA damage and apoptosis in lymphocytes appears to be a clinically useful measure in humans (such as those receiving parenteral nutrition) in whom choline deficiency is suspected. [Emphasis added]
This makes me wonder if in any way lymphocyte telomere testing such as that offered through TeloYears could reflect choline status. I'm guessing it probably can't be that easy, since there must be many
things that can lead to telomere shortening.
ApoE 3/4 > Thanks in advance for any responses made to my posts.