circular wrote:Laurie and others, ConsumerLab says in their boron review that citrate containing supplements increase the absorption of aluminum from medicines and foods. They claim if you don't have kidney issues and don't take aluminum containing medicine's, it's okay. I don't recall this coming up before but may have missed it. I suspect a lot of us take citrate containing supplements. Maybe if we're otherwise not ingesting any aluminum (maybe requires eating all organic everything?) it's okay. Dunno.
Once again you have found some important and interesting information. Thanks. Here is a write up my husband did on what he found. Yes we should be careful about taking supplements containing citrates with the exception of calcium citrate. More importantly we need to focus on identifying sources of aluminum in our daily lives and eliminating as many as we can.
Citrate’s Effect on Aluminum Absorption, Accumulation, and Elimination
Dennis N. Crouse, PhD 10/16/20
Citrate increases both absorption and elimination of aluminum: Calcium citrate 0.95 grams per day taken with 2.4gr/day of aluminum hydroxide increases urinary aluminum by as much as 11-fold as compared with a control group only given aluminum hydroxide. However, plasma aluminum levels were the same in the two groups. Aluminum accumulation was not measured1. Therefore, to prevent aluminum absorption do not mix citrate with aluminum containing drugs, such as antacids. There are aluminum free antacids.
Aluminum accumulation depends upon the ion paired with citrate: Over a 4-week period daily ferric citrate corresponding to 2 to 4 grams of citrate a day increased the accumulation of aluminum from food 2-fold in the brain and 20-fold in the bones2. Calcium taken daily at 1 gram of calcium as calcium citrate and 2 grams of calcium a day as tricalcium citrate for 24 months showed no change in urinary and plasma aluminum levels and no aluminum accumulation in bones3. Therefore, to prevent aluminum accumulation only take calcium citrate. Avoid other citrates not containing calcium.
Aluminum elimination depends upon the ion paired with aluminum: Intravenous administration of aluminum citrate compared with aluminum sulfate proved that aluminum excretion is enhanced with citrate but not when it is paired with sulfate4. Oral administration of citric acid in orange juice (approximately 17,000ppm5) laced with aluminum compared with the same mixture with 10ppm orthosilicic acid added, proved that orthosilicic acid at over 1,000 times less concentration than citric acid either increases aluminum elimination 10-fold or decreases absorption of aluminum 10-fold6. Based upon the work of Chris Exley it is now know that the former is true7. Therefore, to increase aluminum excretion and remove accumulated aluminum from the body, drink orthosilicic acid in silica rich water.
1. Coburn, J.W., et al.; Calcium citrate marked ly enhancers aluminum absorption from aluminum hydroxide; Am. J. Kidney Dis.; Jun.; 17(6):708-11 (1991)
2. Gupta, A.; Ferric citrate hydrate as a phosphate binder and risk of aluminum toxicity; Pharmaceuticals (Basel); Sep: 7(10):990-8 (2014)
3. Sakhaee, K., et al.; Calcium citrate without aluminum antacids does not cause aluminum retention in patients with functioning kidneys; Bone Miner; Jan.; 20(1):87-97 (1993)
4. Shirley, D.G., and Lote, C.J.; Renal handling of aluminum; Nephron. Physiol.; 101:99-103 (2005)
5. Penniston, M.D., et al.; Quantitative assessment of citric acid in lemon juice, lime juice, and commercially-available fruit juice products; J. Endourol.; Mar.; 22(3):567-70 (2008)
6. Edwardson, J.A., et al.; Effect of silicon on gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum; Lancet; 432:211-2 (1993)
7. Exley, C., et al.; Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminum in Alzheimer’s disease; J. Alzheimer’s Disease; 10:17-24 (2006)