Julie G wrote:
mike wrote:So if E3 is not the response to additional meat, then what is it a response to?
I assume you understand that your hypothesis remains unproven (?) You can find some alternative theories here
The first article actually has something that I find mind blowing. In section six - APOE Trade-offs where they talk about the various theories as to why E4 still exists, ner the bottom they talk about the DNA analysis that they did. It has some problems, but is striking none the less...
The samples, mapped in Figure 3 and listed in Supplementary Table S5 with details on the place of discovery and cultural context, cover the Euro-Mediterranean area and range from 1500 to 42,000 years ago. The ε3/ε3 genotype was found to be the most frequent (83%), followed by the ε4/ε4 genotype (13%), and the ε2/ε2 genotype (3%). The only heterozygote ε3/ε4 was represented by the Ust’Ishim sample, a 42,000-year old specimen of early hunter-gatherer human found in Siberia. In more detail, the ε2/ε2 individuals are Northern European samples from the Bronze Age. Despite carrying the ancestral genotype, all ε4/ε4 individuals are less than 8000 years old, with most of them being even more recent than 5000 years, while a conspicuous number of ε3/ε3 samples are much older than this, especially in the areas of Caucasus, between the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Middle East. This temporal and spatial distribution may be coherent with Palaeolithic alleles, like APOE4, having been reintroduced in Europe at higher frequency with the Yamnaya migration from the Steppe during the Bronze age and APOE3 being present at higher frequencies in the Fertile Crescent prior to the Neolithic Revolution, even though both alleles were already present in the European populations as well, as highlighted by the older local specimens [238,243,245]. However, the limited number of samples available across such an extended geographic area and the chance of genotyping errors due to the highly deteriorated ancient DNA hinder the possibility of a thorough factual discussion of the results. In order to draw more elaborate conclusions, it would be useful to recover more complete and evenly distributed ancient data, both in space and in time.
This is basically saying that as recently as 5,000 years ago, There were a bunch of isolated bands and little interaction between them, either because of space or time. The % of the individual zygote type roughly the same as current, except it is now often mixed. Seems the great mixing occurred less than 5,000 years ago, so there has been little time for genetic evolution...