Gallieni M, Fusaro M. Vitamin K and cardiovascular calcification in CKD: is patient supplementation on the horizon. Kidney International. 2014;86:232-234.
The vitamin K-dependent proteins, such as matrix Gla protein and osteocalcin protect from cardiovascular calcifications and bone fractures. Kidney disease can interfere with those vitamin K dependent proteins, contributing to vitamin K deficiency. There are clinical trials ongoing in Europe and in Canada, evaluating whether vitamin K1 supplementation will reduce the progression of coronary artery calcifications for folks with chronic kidney disease. Additional research investigating the effect of vitamin K2 for people with CKD is recommended.
Schurgers LJ. Vitamin K: Key vitamin in controlling vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2013;83:782-784.
Vascular calcification has emerged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in chronic kidney disease. Deficiencies in calcium-regulating proteins are directly related to the development of calcification. McCabe and colleagues report that vitamin K is a key regulator of vascular calcification, via carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins such as matrix Gla protein. Knowledge about vitamin K status may propel therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat vascular calcification with high vitamin K supplementation.
Caluwe R, Vandecasteele S, Van Vlem B, Vermeer C, De Vriese AS. Vitamin K2 supplementation in haemodialysis patients: a randomized dose-finding study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(7):1385-1390.
Haemodialysis patients suffer from accelerated vascular calcification. The vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP) is one of themsot powerful inhibitors of vascular calcification. Haemodialysis patients have high levels of the inactive form of MGP. In this study, 200 chronic dialysis patients received 360,720, or 1080 ug of MK7 three times weekly for 8 weeks. The MK7 supplementation dose dependently reduced the level of inactive MGP, by 17, 33 and 46% in the respective groups. The researchers concluded that MK7 (menaquinone) supplemetnation may be a novel approach to prevent vascular calcification in chronic dialysis patients.
Kaesler N, Magdeleyns E, Herts M, Schettgen T, Brandenburg V, Fliser D. Impaired vitamin K recycling in uremia is rescued by vitamin K supplementation. Kidney International. 2014 Aug;86(2):286-293.
In chronic kidney disease, vitamin K deficiency may contribute to the uremic vascular calcification. In this study, uremia was induced in rats. As expected, their undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein increased, indicating vitamin K deficiency. Within seven weeks, there was overt calcification in the aorta, heart and kidneys. When supplementation of vitamin K began, within four weeks, the carboxylation of mGp was restored and the aortic and renal calcium content was reduced.
Ketteler M, Rothe H, Brandenburg VM, Westenfeld R. The K-factor in chronic kidney disease: biomarkers of calcification inhibition and beyond. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014 Jul;29(7):1267-70.
There is a huge body of unambiguous evidence that cardiovascular calcification represents one of the most stringent mortality risk factors for patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). A key calcification inhibitor is vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP). MGP function appears to be sub-optimal in CKD patients and thus MGP may be an appealing and promising target for a treatment intervention. This means that taking adequate vitamin K would improve the function of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and would reduce the risk of cardiovascular calcification in people with kidney dysfunction.
Keyzer CA, Vermeer C, Joosten MM, Knapen MH, Drummen NE, Navis G et al. Vitamin K status and mortality after kidney transplantation: a cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Nov 12;e pub ahead of print. In press.
Vitamin K modulates calcification by activating calcification inhibitors such as matrix Gla protein (MGP). In kidney transplant recipients, vitamin K insufficiency is common, but implications for long-term outcomes are unclear. 518 stable kidney transplant recipients were studied for their levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) levels, which are thought to reflect vitamin K status. Patients in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP, meaning they had the lowest amount of vitamin K, were at a higher risk of developing transplant failure and dying. Future studies should address whether vitamin K supplementation may lead to improved outcomes after kidney transplantation.
Delanaye P, Liabeuf S, Bouqueqneau A, Cavalier E, Massy ZA. The matrix-gla protein awakening may lead to the demise of vascular calcification. Nephrol Ther. 2014 Mar 17; epub ahead of print.
Matrix gla protein (MGP) is secreted mainly by chondrocytes and smooth vascular muscle cells. Like other Gla proteins, it is vitamin K dependent. A link exists between MGP, vitamin K, vascular calcifications and cardiovascular disease. This link is even more evident in patients suffering from chronic kidney diseases and notably, hemodialysis patients. MGP concentrations could allow the monitoring of treatment for these patients with vitamin K. There are trials using this treatment currently ongoing. This review summarizes the role of MGP, and describes the different clinical studies on MGP and vascular calcifications in the general population and in CKD patients.
Again, Koncentrated K continues to be the only vitamin product that offers all three types of vitamin K at therapeutic levels, and is the most cost effective.
Red Foot Associates
it contains grape seed extract which does not agree with me so I take 2x lef.org K
E4 require more.
http://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2 ... ng/page-03