Midlife Metabolic Profile and the Risk of Late-Life Cognitive Decline
http://content.iospress.com/articles/jo ... /jad170153
Abstract: Among metabolic syndrome components, the effects of higher plasma glucose levels on cognitive decline (CD) have been considered in few studies. We evaluated the associations among midlife glycemia, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, midlife insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-index)], and CD in the older subjects of the population-based MICOL Study (Castellana Grotte, Italy) at baseline (M1) and at follow-ups seven (M2) and twenty years later (M3). At M1, a dementia risk score and a composite cardiovascular risk score for dementia were calculated. For 797 subjects out of 833, we obtained a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score at M3, subdividing these subjects in three cognitive functioning subgroups: normal cognition, mild CD, and moderate-severe CD. Mean fasting glycemia at baseline was significantly higher in moderate-severe CD subgroup (114.6±71.4 mg/dl) than in the normal cognition subgroup (101.2±20.6). Adjusting for gender, age, and other metabolic components, higher fasting glycemia values both at M1 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–1.59] and M2 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01–1.57) were associated with an increased risk of moderate-severe CD. Mean HOMA index value was significantly higher in the moderate-severe CD subgroup (5.7±9.4) compared to the normal cognition subgroup (2.9±1.4) at M1. The dementia risk probability (MMSE < 24) increased moving through higher categories of the dementia risk score and decreased as long as the cardiovascular score increased. The present findings highlighted the indication to control blood glucose levels, regardless of a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, as early as midlife for prevention of late-life dementia.
From full-text, the authors conclude with a public health warning:
In summary, the present findings highlighted the indication to control blood glucose levels, regardess of a diagnosis of DM, as early as midlife for prevention of dementia in late life. These findings may have relevant implications for public health, as the risk of dementia could be reduced identifying “at risk” individuals and controlling glycemia and other vascular factors through early lifestyle modifications. It could be worthy to give particular attention in 466 controlling glycemia within the normal range.