LillyBritches wrote:Stavia - can you please pull this 2010 study? Very disturbing.
http://www.neurobiologyofaging.org/arti ... 97-4580(10)00440-9/abstract
Associations between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and cognitive decline may depend on apolipoprotein E (APOE) status or timing of initiation. We included 16,514 Nurses' Health Study participants aged 70–81 years who were followed since 1976 and completed up to 3 telephone cognitive assessments (2 years apart), between 1995 and 2006. The tests assessed general cognition (Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status; TICS), verbal memory, and category fluency. We used longitudinal analyses to estimate differences in cognitive decline across hormone groups. APOE genotype was available in 3697 participants. Compared with never users, past or current HT users showed modest but statistically significant worse rates of decline in the TICS: the multivariable-adjusted difference in annual rate of decline in the TICS among current estrogen only users versus never users was −0.04 (95% confidence interval, −0.07 to −0.004); for current estrogen + progestin users, the mean difference was −0.05 (95% confidence interval, −0.10 to −0.002). These differences were equivalent to those observed in women who are 1–2 years apart in age. We observed no protective associations with early timing of hormone initiation. We found suggestive interactions with APOE e4 status (e.g., on TICS, p interaction, 0.10), where the fastest rate of decline was observed among APOE e4 carriers who were current HT users. Regardless of timing of initiation, HT may be associated with worse rates of decline in general cognition, especially among those with an APOE e4 allele.
Then again, it states "may be." Good GOD.
Results: A total of 297 (11%) women were current estrogen users and 336 (12%) were past estrogen users. Over the 6-year average follow-up, baseline current users declined 1.5 points on the 3MS whereas never users declined 2.7 points (p = 0.023). Compared with ε4-negative women, ε4-positive women had a greater adjusted hazard ratio of cognitive impairment (3MS < 80), hazard risk [HR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.90. There was an interaction between estrogen use and ε4 presence (p = 0.037). Among ε4-negative women, current estrogen use reduced the risk of adjusted cognitive impairment compared with never users by almost half (HR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.99), whereas, it did not reduce the risk among ε4-positive women (current use, HR = 1.33; 95% CI, 0.74 to 2.42). Compared with never use, current estrogen use was associated with less internal and common carotid wall thickening in ε4-negative women but not in ε4-positive women (p for interaction < 0.05 for both). Differences remained after adjusting for age, education, race, and stroke.
Conclusions: Estrogen use was associated with less cognitive decline among ε4-negative women but not ε4-positive women. Potential mechanisms, including carotid atherosclerosis, by which ε4 may interact with estrogen and cognition warrant further investigation.
Estrogen is a fundamental regulator of the metabolic system of the female brain and body. Within the brain, estrogen regulates glucose transport, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial function to generate ATP. In the body, estrogen protects against adiposity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes, and regulates energy intake and expenditure. During menopause, decline in circulating estrogen is coincident with decline in brain bioenergetics and shift towards a metabolically compromised phenotype. Compensatory bioenergetic adaptations, or lack thereof, to estrogen loss could determine risk of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen coordinates brain and body metabolism, such that peripheral metabolic state can indicate bioenergetic status of the brain. By generating biomarker profiles that encompass peripheral metabolic changes occurring with menopause, individual risk profiles for decreased brain bioenergetics and cognitive decline can be created. Biomarker profiles could identify women at risk while also serving as indicators of efficacy of hormone therapy or other preventative interventions.
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