Abbreviations and acronyms

From ApoE4.Info Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Abbreviations and Acronyms

NOTE: To quickly SEARCH for a particular acronym on this list, press the "ctrl" key with the "F" key ("command" + "F" keys on Mac), this will produce a search box.

These are just some of the acronyms, abbreviations and terms that look like an acronym that have been used within the ApoE4.info forums.

Criteria for list

  • Acronym
  • Abbreviation
  • Word/term that looks like an acronym/abbreviation


1 2 3

12/3 -- shorthand for 12 hours between the end of dinner and the next day's first meal/snack (ApoE4s should aim for 14-16 hours) and 3 hours (minimum) between the end of dinner and bedtime

2-OH-E1 -- High 2-hydroxyestrone

23andMe -- shorthand for www.23andme.com (a DNA testing website)

5-HTP -- 5-hydroxytryptophan (a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin from tryptophan)

5-LO -- Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO

5-MTHF -- L-Methylfolate (supplement)

A

A/G -- Albumin/Globulin ratio (Blood test. A/G ratio is calculated from measured total protein, measured albumin, and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin))

A1c -- shorthand for HbA1C - Hemoglobin A1c

A1 (as in cow or milk) -- (type of beta-casein protein, A1 is the "bad" protein but the most common source for milk and dairy products as A1 cows are better producers so they slowly replaced the original breeds in many parts of the world)

A2 (as in milk or cow) -- (type of beta-casein protein, A2 is the "good" protein from Guernsey, Swiss, French & Italian cows, vs the A1 mutation)

A/G ratio -- Albumin/Globulin ratio (Blood test. A/G ratio is calculated from measured total protein, measured albumin, and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin))

Abeta, also Aβ -- Amyloid Beta (the plaque that accumulates in Alzheimer's)

ACE -- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (a Protein Coding gene)

ACEs (study) -- Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (largest public health study, demonstrated an association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with health and social problems as an adult.)

ACTH -- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (Released by the pituitary gland in response to stress activating the HPA (hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal) axis. The brain's hypothalmus produces CRF (corticotrophin releasing factor) which stimulates the pituitary gland to produce ACTH, that, in turn, causes the adrenal glands to release cortisol and other stress releasing hormones. Cortisol damages neurons especially in the hippocampus, thus leading to cognitive decline.)

AD -- Alzheimer’s disease

ADAM10 -- Alpha Secretase (Estrogen binds to its receptor and activates the enzyme ADAM10 (alpha secretase) that cleaves APP (Amyloid Precursor Protien) in the synapse supporting mode.)

ADC -- Alzheimer's Disease Centers 

ADC NIA -- Alzheimer's Disease Centers, National Institute on Aging

ADDF -- Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation (Mission: Accelerate the discovery of drugs to prevent, treat, and cure Alzheimer's)

ADGC -- Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium 

ADNP -- Activity Dependent Neuroprotective Protein

ADH -- Antidiuretic Hormone

Afib -- shorthand for Atrial Fibrillation (a quivering or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications)

AGE -- Advanced Glycation Endproducts (created by a reaction between sugars and proteins or lipids, high level create oxidative stress, inflammation and pathologies seen with diabetes and other chronic diseases)

AHI -- Apnea-/hypopnea Index

AHS -- Ancestral Health Symposium or Society

AHS16 -- Ancestral Health Symposium 2016 (site of 2016 ApoE4.info meet-up)

AI -- Autoimmune

ALA -- Alpha-Linolenic Acid or α-Linolenic acid (an Omega−3 fatty acid. It is one of two essential fatty acids (the other being linoleic acid))

ALCAR -- Acetyl-L-carnitine (Broken down in the blood by plasma esterases to carnitine which is used by the body to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for breakdown)

ALS -- Amyotrophic Laterals Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord)

ALT -- Alanine Aminotransferase (blood test typically used to detect liver injury)

ALZ -- shorthand for Alzheimer’s

AMA -- American Medical Association

AMPK -- 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis)

AmR -- Amylin Receptor

ANA -- AntiNuclear Antibody (test which looks for autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis)

anti-CCP -- Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (antibody blood test for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and for predicting risk for joint damage)

ApoB/ApoA-1 (ratio) -- polipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A-I ratio (represents the balance of proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins)

ApoA-1 -- Apolipoprotein A-I ("good cholesterol")

ApoB -- Apolipoprotein B ("bad cholesterol")

APOE -- This isn't an abbreviation, it's the actually name of the gene that codes for the protein apolipoprotein E (though the name derives from an abbreviation of the protein). It is written using all caps, and is italicized.

APOE-ε2 -- The ε2 (epsilon-2) variant of the APOE gene, which makes apolipoprotein E2 (the allele)

APOE-ε3 -- The ε3 (epsilon-3) variant of the APOE gene, which makes apolipoprotein E3 (the allele)

APOE-ε4 -- The ε4 (epsilon-4) variant of the APOE gene, which makes apolipoprotein E4 (the allele)

apoE -- apolipoprotein E.

apoE2 -- apolipoprotein E2 (the lipid-binding protein, a product of the allele)

apoE3 -- apolipoprotein E3 (the lipid-binding protein, a product of the allele)

apoE4 -- apolipoprotein E4 (the lipid-binding protein, a product of the allele)

APP -- Amyloid Precursor Protein

ASAP -- As Soon as Possible

ATM -- At the Moment

ATP -- Adenosine Triphosphate (transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism)

Aβ -- Amyloid Beta (the plaque that accumulates in Alzheimer's)

B

BBB -- Blood Brain Barrier (Highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). The blood–brain barrier allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. Furthermore, it prevents the entry of lipophilic potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein)

BCAA -- Branched Chain Amino Acids (three amino acids with similar structures that beneficially influence the muscles)

BDNF -- Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support the survival of existing neurons, and encourage the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. In the brain, it is active in areas vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking.)

BEG (nasal spray) -- Bactroban (Mupirocin) 0.2%, Edetate Disodium (EDTA) 1%, Gentamicin 0.5% (Nasal spray for MARCoNS (Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Coagulase Negative Stapylococci))

BG -- Blood Glucose

BHB -- Beta Hydroxy Butyrate

BHRT or bHRT -- Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy

BMI -- Body Mass Index

BMR -- Basal Metabolic Rate (The amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting)

BOD -- Board of Directors

BP -- Blood Pressure

BPA -- Bisphenol A (chemical product that was used to make certain plastics and resins since the 1960s. Research indicated it can seep into food or beverages from containers resulting in health concerns)

BRCA -- (genes that are tumor suppressors. BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations have a higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer)

BTW -- By The Way


C

CAC -- Coronary Artery Calcium (Calcium Score)

CAD -- coronary artery disease.

Cal -- shorthand for Calories

cAMp -- Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate

CBD -- Cannabidiol (one of the cannabinoids identified in cannabis. Does not appear to have any intoxicating effects)

CBC -- Complete Blood Count

CCA-IMT -- Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness

CDC -- Centers For Disease Control

CF -- Chronic Fatigue

CFS -- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (also known as CFIDS, chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome)

CGM -- Continuous Glucose Monitoring

CIMT -- Carotid Intima Media Thickness (imaging test to detect plaques in the carotid (neck) arteries)

CIRS -- Chronic Inflammation Response Syndrome (An acute and chronic, systemic inflammatory response syndrome acquired following exposure to the interior environment of a water-damaged building with resident toxigenic organisms, including, but not limited to fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes and mycobacteria as well as inflammagens such as endotoxins, beta glucans, hemolysins, proteinases, mannans and possibly spirocyclic drimanes; as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). You can also get CIRS from a brown recluse spider bite; from fish that have been contaminated with ciguetera; and from Borrelia burgdorferi, the bug that causes Lyme Disease.)

CNS -- Central Nervous System

CO -- Coconut Oil

CoA -- Coenzyme A, a coenzyme used in processing fatty acids and citric acid

CONa -- (lectin in legumes)

CoQ10 -- Coenzyme Q 10 (A supplement, helps convert food into energy)

CPAP -- Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (a machine to help a person who has obstructive sleep apnea breathe more easily during sleep)

CPT -- Current Procedural Terminology (the code set used to bill outpatient and office procedures)

CR -- calorie restriction. A reduction in the energy content of a diet without a concomitant reduction in (other) essential nutrients. Term often used to mean a diet practiced with the intention of slowing the aging process per se.

CRF -- Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (Produced by the brain's hypothalmus in response to stress. Stress activates the HPA (hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal axis). The brain's hypothalmus produces CRF (corticotrophin releasing factor) which stimulates the pituitary gland to produce ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), that, in turn, causes the adrenal glands to release cortisol and other stress releasing hormones. Cortisol damages neurons especially in the hippocampus, thus leading to cognitive decline.)

CRISPR -- Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (a genome editing tool)

CRP -- C-reactive protein (a blood test marker for inflammation in the body)

CT -- Computed Tomography (scan)

CSF -- Cerebrospinal Fluid

CV -- Cardiovascular (relating to the circulatory system, the heart and blood vessels)

CVA -- Cerebrovascular accident (The sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery to the brain)

CVD -- cerebral vascular disease.

CVLT -- California Verbal Learning Test (assesses verbal memory abilities)

D

DASH -- Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

DBC -- Dynamic Brain Conference

dbSNP -- Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database 

DE -- Diet Evolution (first book written by Dr Steven Gundry)

DHA -- docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid in fish oil that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina)

DHA/EPA -- Docosahexaenoic Acid /Eicosapentaenoic Acid (the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil)

DHEA -- Dehydroepiandrosterone (hormone in body and supplement used to improve sex drive, build muscle, fight the effects of aging, and improve some health conditions)

DNA -- Deoxyribonucleic acid 

DP -- Diastolic Pressure (Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum during one heart beat) over diastolic pressure (minimum in between two heart beats)

DTC -- Direct-to-Consumer

dx -- shorthand for diagnosis


E

E2 -- shorthand for Estradiol (estrogen)

E4 -- shorthand for either the gene variant, APOE-ε4, or its product, apolipoprotein E4,

EBCT -- Electron Beam Computerized Tomography (scan for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD))

EBT -- Electron Beam (Ultrafast CT (scan) to determine Coronary Artery Calcification)

EBV -- Epstein-Barr Virus

ECG (also EKG) -- Electrocardiogram

EDS -- Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (inherited disorders that affect connective tissues — primarily skin, joints and blood vessel walls)

EDS/POTS -- Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome 

EEG -- Electroencephalogram (test that detects electrical activity in your brain)

eFAD -- early onset Familial Alzheimer’s Disease (hereditary, marked by Alzheimer's disease symptoms which appear at an unusually early age. Symptoms can start in a person's thirties, forties, fifties and very rarely in the late twenties)

EKG (also ECG) -- Electrocardiogram

ELISA -- Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (test that detects and measures antibodies in blood to dertermine certain infectious conditions)

EMF -- Electromagnetic Fields (Produced by electronic devices such as televisions, cell phones, microwave ovens, wi-fi devices, etc. Can negatively affect sleep and impact mitochondrial health)

ENT -- Ear, Nose, and Throat

EOAD -- early onset Alzheimer’s disease.

EPA -- eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 component of fish oil).

ERMI -- Environmental Protection Agency Relative Moldiness Index

EU -- European Union

EVCO -- Extra Virgin Coconut Oil

EVOO -- Extra Virgin Olive Oil

EWG -- Environmental Working Group (non-profit, non-partisan organization assisting consumer choice. http://www.ewg.org/)

F

FA -- fatty acid.

FAD -- Familial Alzheimer’s disease.

FB -- Facebook (social network website)

FBG -- Facebook (social network website)

FBS -- Fasting Blood Sugar

FDA -- Food and Drug Administration

FDG-PET -- Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (imaging scan)

FLAIR -- Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (an MRI)

FM -- Fibromyalgia

FMD -- Fasting Mimicking Diet

FMD -- Functional Medicine Doctor

FMP -- Functional Medicine Practicioner

fMRI -- Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

FODMAPs -- Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides Polyols ( a collection of short chain carbohydrates and sugar alcohols found in foods naturally or as food additives)

FOS -- Fructooligosaccharides (an alternative sweetener)

Free T3 -- Free Triiodothyronine (a blood test ordered primarily to help diagnose hyperthyroidism)

Free T4 -- Free Thyroxine (thyroid function test)

FTD -- Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia (Dementia characterized by progressive neuronal loss predominantly involving the frontal and/or temporal lobes. Second most common dementia after Alzheimer’s. Typically manifests between the ages of 55 and 65, men and women equally.)

FTDNA -- Family Tree DNA (commercial genetic testing company www.familytreedna.com)

FWIW -- For What It's Worth

FYI -- For Your Information

G

g -- Gram

GABA -- Gamma Amino Butyric Acid

GC -- Glucocorticoid (a class of steroid hormones present in almost every vertebrate animal cell)

GERD -- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

GF -- Gluten Free

GHR -- Genetic Health Risk

GI -- Gastrointestinal

GI -- Glycemic Index

GLA -- Gamma-Linolenic Acid ( fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils)

GP -- General Practitioner

GRAS -- Generally Recognized As Safe

GSE -- Grape Seed Extract

GSH -- Glutathione

GWAS -- Genome-Wide Association Study

H

HbA1c -- Hemoglobin A1c (blood test for average level of blood sugar, glucose, over the past 2 to 3 months)

HBOT -- Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

HCV -- Hepatitis C Virus

HCY -- shorthand for Homocysteine

HDL -- High-Density Lipoprotein (good cholesterol)

HDL (lab) -- Health Diagnostic Laboratory (now defunct)

HDL2b -- (HDL cholesterol can be divided based on density, size and protein composition. The HDL2 subfraction (HDL2a, HDL2b) consists of larger, more buoyant particles while particles in the HDL3 subfraction (HDL3a, HDL3b, HDL3c) are smaller and denser. The largest and most buoyant HDL particle is HDL2b. HDL2b is an indicator of how well excess lipids are removed from cells, it positively correlates with heart health)

HEPA -- High-Efficiency Particulate Air (type of air filter)

HERTSMI -- (a test for mold)

HERX -- shorthand for Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (seen in many diseases, believed to occur when injured or dead bacteria release their endotoxins into the blood and tissues faster than the body can comfortably handle it.)

HFD -- High Fat Diet

HFLC -- high-fat, low-carb.

HHV-6 -- Human Herpesvirus 6 

HIIT also HIT -- High-Intensity Interval Training (type of aerobic exercise)

HLA -- Human Leukocyte Antigen

HLA DQ -- (cell surface receptor protein. May become involved in autoimmune disease. Two autoimmune diseases in which HLA-DQ is involved are coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1)

HLA DR -- Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related (an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex. HLA-DR is also involved in several autoimmune conditions, disease susceptibility and disease resistance.)

HLI -- Human Longevity, Inc.

HMO -- Health Maintenance Organization

HOMA -- Homeostatic Model Assessment

HOMA-IR -- Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (a method used to quantify insulin resistance and beta-cell function: fasting glucose times fasting insulin divided by 405. (FG x FI/405) Desired range: 1.0 or lower. Average in US is 1.75, too high. Over 2.5 is insulin resistance. Distinct linear association between HOMA-IR and chronic disease, including Alzheimer's and cardiovascular disease)

HPA -- Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal

HRT -- Hormone Replacement Therapy

hs-CRP -- High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein that the liver makes when there is inflammation in the body. This marker of inflammation can be measured with a hs-CRP test)

HSF -- High-Saturated Fat

HSV-1 -- Herpes Simplex Virus 1

Hx -- shorthand for history


I

IAD -- Inhalational Alzheimers

IBS -- Irritable Bowel Syndrome

IBS-D/C -- Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Diarrhea/Constipation

IDE -- Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

IF -- intermittent fasting.

IFM -- Institute for Functional Medicine

IGA -- Immunoglobulin A 

IgG -- Immunoglobulin G

IgM -- Immunoglobulin M

IGAP -- International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project 

IgE -- Immunoglobulin E

IGF-1 -- Insulin Like Growth Factor -1 (IGF-1 is a primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone (GH). Signaling through the insulin/IGF-1-like receptor pathway is a significant contributor to biological aging in many organisms.)

IL-17a -- Interleukin-17A (most notable role of IL-17 is its involvement in inducing and mediating proinflammatory responses. IL-17 is commonly associated with allergic responses)

IL-6 -- Interleukin 6 (an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. IL-6 seems to play a major role in the process of acute or chronic stress (i.e. depression, anxiety) suppressing the immune system. IL-6 stimulates the inflammatory and auto-immune processes in many diseases and has been shown to lead to several neurological diseases through its impact on epigenetic modification within the brain. IL-6 also has extensive anti-inflammatory functions in its role as a myokine when elevated through exercise.

ILADS -- International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society 

IMHO -- In my humble opinion

IMO -- In My Opinion

IR -- Insulin Resistance or Insulin Resistant

IRB -- Institutional Review Board

IT -- Inflammation Testing

IVF -- In Vitro Fertilization (the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus)

IVig -- Intravenous Immunoglobulin


J

Jelly - shorthand for jealous

K

KB -- Ketone Bodies

KD -- Ketogenic Diet

Keto -- shorthand for ketogenic, ketosis


L

LC -- Low Carbohydrate

LCFA -- long-chain fatty acid.

LCHF, also LC/HF -- Low Carbohydrate, High Fat

LCHHF -- Low Carb High, Healthy Fat

LCPUFA -- Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

LDL-c -- Low-density lipoprotein -cholesterol (the amount of cholesterol which is estimated to be contained with LDL particles)

LDL-p -- Low-density lipoprotein particles

LDL-R -- Low-density lipoprotein receptor

LE, also LEF -- Life Extension (brand of supplements)

LFHC -- low fat high carb.

LOAD -- late onset Alzheimer’s disease.

LOL -- Laughing Out Loud

LOX -- Lysyl Oxidase

Lp(a) -- Lipoprotein(a) (a small, dense, highly inflammatory lipoprotein, a risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases)

LPIR -- Lipoprotein Insulin Resistance (a score strongly associated with incident diabetes, independent of risk factors that include body mass index, hemoglobin A1c levels and lipids)

Lp-PLA2 -- Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 (enzyme that appears to play a role in the inflammation of blood vessels, Lp-PLA2 test helps evaluate risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD))

LPS -- Lipopolysaccharides (an endotoxin)

LTP -- Long Term Potentiation

M

MAF -- Minor Allele frequency

MAO-A -- Monoamine Oxidase-A

MAOA-H -- High-activity variant of the gene Monoamine Oxidase-A

MAOA-L -- Low-activity variant of the gene Monoamine Oxidase-A

MAPT -- Multi-domain Alzheimer’s Prevention Trial

MARCoNS -- Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (Staph bacteria that form protective coatings called biofilms and are resistant to many antibiotics)

MCAD -- Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

MCAD -- Mast cell activation Disorder

MCAS -- Mast cell activation syndrome

MCI -- mild cognitive impairment.

MCFA -- medium-chain fatty acid.

MCT -- medium-chain triglyceride.

MD -- Medical Doctor

MEND -- Metabolic Enhancement for NeuroDegenerative Disease (original name for Dr Bredesen's protocol, currently out of date, current Bredesen protocol is called ReCode for Reversal of Cognitive Decline).

Mg -- Magnesium (mineral that helps keep blood pressure normal, bones strong, and the heart rhythm steady)

MetS -- metabolic syndrome.

MI -- Myocardial Infarction (heart attack)

MIND -- (a diet which is a hybrid of the Mediterranean and DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diets)

MMA -- Methylmalonic Acid

MMP -- Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

MMSE --Mini–Mental State Examination

MOA -- Mode of Action

MOCA -- Montreal Cognitive Assessment

MOOC -- Massive Open Online Course

MPI -- shorthand for MPI Cognition

MPI Cognition -- (organization based on Dr Bredesen's research/protocol to prevent and reverse cognitive decline. www.mpicognition.com)

MPO -- Myeloperoxidase (a peroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MPO gene on chromosome 17)

MR -- Methionine Restriction

MRI -- Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

MRSA -- Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus

MS -- Multiple Sclerosis

MSH -- Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones

MSM -- Methylsulfonylmethane (a supplement to decrease joint inflammation, improves flexibility and restores collagen production)

MTHFR -- Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase (a gene that provides instructions for making an enzyme that processes amino acids. Those with this gene mutation have issues processing amino acids and often have elevated homocysteine levels)

mTOR -- Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin, formerly Mammalian Target of Rapamycin  (The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of mammalian metabolism and physiology, with important roles in the function of tissues including liver, muscle, white and brown adipose tissue, and the brain.)

MUFA -- monounsaturated fatty acid (plant-based fats)

N

N=1 -- (Where data is collected from one datapoint, i.e. one person's experience)

n-3 fatty acids -- Omega-3 fatty acids, or ω-3 fatty acids 

NAC -- N-acetyl cysteine (supplement primarily used as a mucous thinner, but also replenishes intracellular levels of the natural antioxidant glutathione (GSH), helping to restore cells’ ability to fight damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS))

NAD -- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide  (coenzyme involved in reduction-oxidation reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another)

NCBI -- National Center for Biotechnology Information

NCD -- Neurocognitive Disorders

ND -- Naturopathic Doctor

net carb -- shorthand for net carbohydrate (grams of total carbohydrates minus its grams of fiber. The body cannot digest fiber, therefore, it does not raise your blood sugar levels or trigger an insulin response. For low-carb dieters, fiber carbs don't count as carbs.)

NF-kappaB or NF-κB -- Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (a strong gene-altering and inflammation-triggering molecule)

NFTs -- Neurofibrillary Tangles

NGF -- Nerve Growth Factor

NHANES -- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (a survey research program conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States, and to track changes over time)

NIA -- National Institute on Aging

NIH -- National Institutes of Health

NIOSH -- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NK cells -- Natural killer cells (a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system)

NL -- Neutral Lipids

NMO --Neuromyelitis Optica (also known as Devic's disease or Devic's syndrome, is a heterogeneous condition consisting of the simultaneous inflammation and demyelination of the optic nerve (optic neuritis) and the spinal cord (myelitis).

NMR  -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (cholesterol blood test)

NOR (test) -- Novel Object Recognition (test)

NQ -- Neuro-Quant (scan for brain image analysis, links mold illness to structural changes in the brain)

NR -- Nicotinamide Riboside

NSAID -- Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (a drug class that groups together drugs that provide analgesic and antipyretic effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.)

NSE --Neuron Specific Enolase (a test to monitor therapy in various other cancers)

NSF -- Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis

NT-proBNP -- N-Terminal pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide (a blood test primarily used to help detect, diagnose, and evaluate the severity of heart failure)

O

OA -- Osteoarthritis

OCD -- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

OGT -- Oral Glucose Tolerance (Test)

OGTT -- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (Measures the body's ability to use glucose (blood sugar), the body's main source of energy. Test can be used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes.)

OMG -- Oh My God/Gosh

OPTIMA -- Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing

OR -- Odds Ratio

OR -- Operating Room

OSA -- obstructive sleep apnea.

OTC -- Over the Counter (non prescription drug)

OTOH -- On the Other Hand

oxLDL -- oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein

P

P5P -- Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (a form of Vitamin B-6)

PA -- Physician Assistant

PAP --Positive airway pressure

PC --Phosphatidylcholine

PCOS -- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

PCP -- Primary Care Physician

PCSK9 --Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (an enzyme encoded by the PCSK9 gene)

PD -- Parkinson's Disease

PEMT -- Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (A transferase enzyme which converts phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the liver. In humans it is encoded by the PEMT gene.)

PEO --Parent Essential Oils

PET -- Positron Emission Tomography (scan)

PEX -- Crosslinked Polyethylene (non-metal material for water pipes)

PHS -- Polygenic Hazard Score

PHS -- Public Health Service

PICALM -- Phosphatidylinositol Binding Clathrin Assembly Protein (a gene)

PIR -- Physiological Insulin Resistance

PLEFA -- Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids

PLOS -- Public Library of Science (PLOS Medicine is a peer-reviewed weekly medical journal)

PM -- Private Message

PMID -- Pub Med Identifier (unique identifier number used in PubMed)

PND -- Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnoea

POTS -- Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

POV -- Point of View

PP -- Plant Paradox (2nd book written by Dr Gundry)

PP - Pulse Pressure

PP2A -- Protein Phosphatase 2A

PPAR-γ or PPARG -- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

PPBG -- Postprandial Blood Glucose (the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in the blood after a meal)

PPI -- Proton Pump Inhibitor (reduces stomach acid, such products as Prevacid, Nexium, Prilosec, etc.)

PQQ -- Polyquinoline Quinone (supplement that stimulates growth in bacteria and displays antioxidant and neuroprotective effects)

PR -- Press Release

PTSD -- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

PUFA -- polyunsaturated fatty acid. (fatty acids that contain more than one (poly) double bond in their backbone. Found in common oils - corn oil, canola oil, vegetable oil, soybean oil. Each double bond is a point of flexibility, thus PUFAs are more liquid at low temperature. Those double bonds are also points of of weakness/oxidation. When you have oxidation, you have oxygen free radical release and can be quite inflammatory.)

Q

Q&A -- Question and Answer


R

R5P -- Ribose 5-phosphate

RA -- Rheumatoid Arthritis

RAGE -- Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products

RBC -- Red Blood Cell Count

RBC EPA + DHA -- Red Blood Cell Count of Eicosapentaenoic Acid + Docosahexaenoic Acid (the two primary components fish oil)

RCT -- Randomized Controlled Trials (considered the gold standard for examining the efficacy of an intervention)

RDA -- Recommended Daily Allowance

REA -- Radioextraction Assays

ReCode -- Reversal of Cognitive Decline (protocol introduced in 2017 by Dr Bredesen's book, "The End of Alzheimer's", initially called MEND, Metabolic Enhancement for Neurodegeneration, but MEND is now out of date.)

redox -- shorthand for reduction-oxidation

REM -- Rapid Eye Movement (phase of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement, low muscle tone throughout the body, and vivid dreams)

RERA -- Respiratory Effort Related Arousal (During sleep it is a breathing disorder characterized by obstructive upper airway airflow reduction which does not meet the criteria of apnea or hypopnea)

RF -- Rheumatoid Factor

RMR -- Resting Metabolic Rate (also known as Basal Metabolic Rate, the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting)

RNA -- Ribonucleic Acid

ROS -- Reactive Oxygen Species (formed as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen and have important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis.  However, during times of environmental stress (e.g., UV or heat exposure), ROS levels can increase dramatically. This may result in significant damage to cell structures. Cumulatively, this is known as oxidative stress.)

RR -- Relaxation Response

RS -- Resistant Starch

RSD/CRPS -- Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy / Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

RT -- Resistance Training

rTG -- Re-esterified Triglyceride

Rx -- shorthand for prescription, prescribe

S

SAB -- Scientific Advisory Board

SAD -- Standard American Diet

SAGE -- Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination

SAM -- S-Adenosyl methionine

SAMe -- S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (made in the body from a reaction between methionine, which is an essential amino acid, and adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that carries energy. Also a supplement for various conditions)

SCD -- Specific Carbohydrate Diet (for gut healing)

SCD -- Subjective Cognitive Decline

SCFA -- Short Chain Fatty Acids

SCI -- Subjective Cognitive Impairment (First phase in Alzheimer's progression where the individual is still scoring in the normal range but feels their thinking process isn’t what it used to be, probably lasts around 10 years)

sdLDL -- Small Density Low-Density Lipoprotein (the LDL which tends to oxidize)

SDMA -- Symmetric Dimethylarginine

Se -- Selenium (mineral with antioxidant properties)

SEID -- Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

SF -- Saturated Fat

SFA -- saturated fatty acid.

SGOT -- Serum Glutamic-oxaloacetic Transaminase (an enzyme that is normally present in liver and heart cells. SGOT is released into blood when the liver or heart is damaged.)

SGPT -- Serum Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (an enzyme that is normally present in liver and heart cells. SGPT is released into blood when the liver or heart are damaged)

SHBG -- Sex Hormone Binding Globulin

SIBO -- Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

SirT1 -- Silent Information Regulator 1

SMASH -- Salmon, Mackerel, Anchovies, Sardines and Herring

SNP -- Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (The most common type of genetic variation among people. Each SNP represents a difference in a single DNA building block, called a nucleotide)

snpedia -- Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms - Pedia (a wiki investigating human genetics)

SP -- Systolic Pressure (Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum during one heart beat) over diastolic pressure (minimum in between two heart beats)

SPMs -- Specialized Pro-resolving Mediators

SSRI -- Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors or Serotonin-Specific Reuptake Inhibitors (class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants)

SUVR -- Standard Uptake Value ratio (through PET imaging, amyloid burden can also be quantified through the computation of a Standard Uptake Value ratio)

T

T cell -- T lymphocyte (a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role the immune response)

T1 -- Type 1 (diabetes)

T1DM -- Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

T2 -- Type 2 (diabetes)

T2D -- Type 2 Diabetes (known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes)

T3 -- Triiodothyronine (hormone produced by the thyroid gland)

T4 -- Thyroxine (hormone produced by the thyroid gland)

tau -- not an abbreviation or acronym. The "tangles" that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease

TBD -- To Be Determined

TBI -- traumatic brain injury.

TC -- Total Cholesterol

TDHC -- Total Histamine Degradation Capacity

TF -- Transferrin (gene associated with total iron binding capacity)

TG -- Triglycerides

TGF-beta-1 or TGF-β1 -- Transforming Growth Factor beta 1

THC -- Tetrahydrocannabinol (the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis i.e. what makes a person high)

tHcy -- Total Homocysteine 

TIA -- Thanks in Advance

TL -- Total Lipids

TLDR -- Too Long, Didn't Read

TMAO -- Trimethylamine N-oxide (Studies indicate that high levels of TMAO in the blood are associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events)

TMG -- Trimethylglycine (a supplement, generally taken for healthy levels of homocysteine)

TMI -- Too Much Information

TNF -- Tumor Necrosis Factor (a pro-inflammatory cytokine)

TOFI -- Thin Outside, Fat Inside (These are people who have a limited ability to store fat. They look thin, have acceptable Body Mass Index (BMI) level, but can easily max out the capacity of their body to store fat both subcutaneous (under skin), and visceral (within the abdominal cavity, therefore around important internal organs). TOFIs look thin but can be horribly insulin resistant or diabetic)

TOR -- Target of Rapamycin

TPP -- Triphenylphosphonium

TRH -- Thyrotrophin-Releasing Hormone

TSH -- Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone  (blood test is used to check for thyroid gland problems)

TUDCA -- Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid

TY -- Thank You

U

UARS -- Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome

UBIOME -- (A company that that gives individuals and access to sequence their microbiomes, particularly gut flora, using a sampling kit. https://ubiome.com/ )

UCP -- Uncoupling Proteins

UDCA -- Ursodeoxycholic Acid

UFA -- Unsaturated Fatty Acid

V

VAP -- Vertical Auto Profile (Cholesterol test which augments the standard profile with additional measurements)

VCS -- Visual Contrast Sensitivity

VDR -- Vitamin D Receptor

VEGF -- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

VIP -- Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (nasal spray)

VLDL -- Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)

VLF -- Very Low Fat

VOCs -- Volatile Organic Compounds

VSL#3 -- (a high potency probiotic, doesn't seem to be an acronym)

W

WCFE -- Whole Coffee Fruit Extract

WHI -- Women's Health Initiative (long-term national health study focused on strategies for preventing heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women)

WGA -- Wheat Germ Agglutinin (a lectin in wheat)

WHO -- World Health Organization

WRAP -- Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention

WRT -- With Regard To, With Reference To, With Respect To

X

XO -- shorthand for a kiss and a hug


Y

YMMV -- Your Mileage May Vary


Z

ZMA -- (a supplement - a combination of zinc monomethionine/asparate and magnesium aspartate plus vitamin B6)


OTHER

β cells -- Beta Cells ( type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. Primary function of beta cells is to store and release insulin)

β-amyloid -- Beta Amyloid (the plaque that accumulates in Alzheimer's)