MagicBean wrote:Still unsure if I should supplement and with what form specifically.
Premenopausal women are relatively resistant to choline deficiency compared with postmenopausal women and men.
MagicBean wrote:I had to Google TMG... eeek, another supplement to research.
MagicBean wrote:I've never had gall bladder issues but my mother has (stones and removal) as well as some folks on my dad's side.
Our findings do not support an association between dietary choline/betaine with incident CVD, but call for further research into choline and CVD mortality.
We evaluated the link between choline consumption and overall as well as cause-specific mortality by using both individual data and pooling prospective studies by meta-analysis and systematic review. ... After adjustments, we found that individuals consuming more choline had worse lipid profile and glucose homeostasis, but lower C-reactive protein levels [leaving one to wonder about the adverse affects of their overall diet with high choline] ... Our findings shed light on the potential adverse effects of choline intake on selected cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality risk.
Evidence linking choline and insulin resistance (IR) is limited and largely based on animal experiments. Only one study in humans, reported improved IR in individuals with a higher choline intake (14). In another human study, serum choline levels were inversely associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) (8). Furthermore, decreased serum choline levels served as possible predictors of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and IR in the pre-diabetic state (9). Just a single study examined the effects of dietary choline intake on body composition; a high dietary choline consumption was significantly associated with a favorable body composition (10).
To the best of our knowledge, only two studies evaluated the link between CVD mortality and choline intake showing diverse results (11, 12) i.e. a Japanese study reported no association between intake of phosphatidylcholine and CVD mortality (12), whereas an American study found a positive relationship between choline consumption and CVD mortality (11). The Japanese study also evaluated the association between stroke mortality and choline intake, with null findings (12). With regard to all- cause death, there is also just one study involving USA adults, reporting a positive link with choline intake (11). Furthermore, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ARIC), involving 14,430 middle- aged men and women, found a non-significant association between choline consumption and CVD incidence (13). This finding was further supported by the Jackson Heart Study (n=3,924), showing a positive relationship between choline intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence, but a reverse link between choline consumption and ischemic stroke incidence (3). In contrast, in another study in 16,165 women (age range: 49-70 years), there was no significant link between CVD and choline intake.
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